The list of ERP software system train wrecks is legendary – and growing. Hardly a month passes without news appearing of another lawsuit being filed against a vendor or integrator by a customer who claims they wasted tens of millions of dollars – sometimes hundreds of millions – only to discover than an upgrade or a new system went off the rails.

We’ve written about many of these failures, most recently on problems faced by the state of Maryland, Revlon, and National Grid. And ERP consultant Eric Kimberling created a list of his Top 10 Worst ERP Failures of All Time.

The specifics of each failure differ. Yet as attorneys who’ve spent our careers negotiating and drafting ERP contracts, and litigating disputes when a project goes sideways, we’ve seen a number of issues that each failure has in common. Here is our list of the six most frequent reasons why an ERP project is likely to come undone.

1 – The customer didn’t start its selection process with a consultant. A technology-agnostic authority with deep ERP experience in a range of industries will help a company with everything from framing the RFP to assessing proposals and then riding herd on the vendor and integrator as the project is being implemented. A good consultant will know when suppliers are blowing smoke to upsell their services and when they’re drawing attention to a legitimate problem.

2 – The customer accepts at face value what vendors and integrators tell them. This is related to No. 1. The sales teams sent out by vendors such as SAP, Oracle and Microsoft, as well as from integrators such as Accenture, have only one job: get you to sign the order. They will say what they believe you want to hear. “We have deep experience in the widget business,” even if they’ve never stepped foot in a widget plant. Customers unfamiliar with these tactics who proceed without a consultant at their side can easily fall prey. In the same vein, the product demo shown to potential customers often doesn’t work the way the actual version being sold functions in a real-time situation.

3 – Top management didn’t “own” the project. Many times, top executives assume that because they have an integrator they don’t need to spend time managing the project.  What they overlook is that an ERP software system touches nearly every aspect of the business from the supply chain and production to distribution, invoicing, accounting and even payroll. Yet despite its far-reaching impact and enormous amount of company money and people’s time that are required to make it operational and useful, we’ve seen companies hand off responsibility for the integration to either their IT department or a third party integrator with little or no active oversight from the top. No other aspect of a business is dealt with this way and ERP must receive the same attention that is given to cash flow and head counts.

4 – ERP is viewed as a “tech” project. An ERP software system is a technology tool that provides a business management solution. When the person in the corner office thinks of ERP only as a tech project, it can get relegated to the same category as an upgrade to Windows or iOS. Sign the contract and let the folks over in IT worry about the implementation and any problems that might arise. Unfortunately, many integrators are guilty of trying to let the CEO, COO and CFO think in these terms because it reduces the chance of being asked tough questions when there are problems.

5 – Template contracts are signed without negotiating. When a company tells a vendor and integrator “we’ll do it!” the contracts that get slid across the desk are one-sided in favor of the seller. To the extent possible, a customer’s contracts should:

  • Include all of the sales material presented and the proposal that was accepted.
  • Be as specific and detailed as possible.
  • Define the exact responsibilities of the customer, the vendor and the integrator.
  • Detail how changes will be made during integration and who is authorized to approve any changes.
  • Include a list of the subcontractors to be used by the vendor or integrator, their role in the project and their experience on similar ERP software systems in a similar industry.
  • Specify the warranty limits and include language detailing what remedies will be available in the event of a project meltdown.

6 – Management sees the vendor and integrator as their partner. Too often, the reality is just the opposite. The large vendors and integrators are skilled at lulling the customer into a false feeling of “we’re in this together.” While sometimes this is true, in a growing number of instances the sellers are only selling – and upselling – their services and view the customer as their adversary to be “handled.” This can result in a company agreeing to pay now for licenses it won’t need for years in the future, if ever. A partner would not do this.

Management’s Responsibility

Vendors and integrators may not be angels when it comes to their dealing with a customer, however, frequently, management must shoulder part of the blame when an ERP implementation fails. As ERP attorneys who have litigated many ERP disasters, we often find that if the C-suite had been doing its job the problem may not have escalated in the first place.

If you are a general counsel or other senior executive at a company or public sector body considering an upgrade to your ERP software system, or thinking about installing one for the first time, we’d be happy to speak with you about how to do the project the right way. We’ll answer your questions and can refer you to several of the top consultants in the ERP space.

Much of the business world has been focusing on ensuring it is compliant with California’s tough Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA) that took effect Jan. 1, 2020. Far less attention has been paid to a second law enacted by the state legislature that came into force at the same time regulating the data security of connected “smart” devices.

Called the IoT law, the far-reaching act covers everything from connected bathroom scales and fitness trackers to printers, major appliances and some GPS devices. About the only products exempt from California’s rules are those regulated by federal law, such as medical devices covered by the FDA and vehicles that come under the purview of the National Highway and Transportation Safety Act.

Like CCPA, California’s IoT law covers California residents and households regardless of where the manufacturer is based or when an item is actually made. But because of the state’s huge population and massive economic impact – by some estimates, California is the world’s fifth-largest economy – in many respects its IoT law became a national law.

Complying with the IoT Law

For the first time, IoT devices must have what the legislation calls “reasonable” security features that are appropriate to the nature of the device, and the information being collected, transmitted and stored, and are intended to protect both the device and its information from unauthorized access, use, modification, disclosure or destruction.

The law doesn’t actually define what a “reasonable” security feature might be other than if it can be accessed outside of a home’s local network – a basic function of any consumer-focused IoT device. Each must have a unique password, and the requirement for users to be able to create their own method of authenticating before access to the device is allowed the first time it is used.

As a result, businesses making and selling smart IoT devices need to review and reconsider what information is being collected and how it is used. The law repeatedly refers specifically to traditional household items, such as microwaves and children’s toys, which often have the ability to collect more data than is really needed to function properly.

In the legislative report that accompanied the law, the Assembly referred to a smart doll with Bluetooth that allowed the doll to talk with kids. It prompted children to provide all sorts of irrelevant information, such as their addresses and the names of their schools. A hacker could use this data to do all sorts of horrible things to vulnerable children.

As yet another related example, a business owner in Buffalo, New York, complained on LinkedIn when she discovered to her horror that her Google Home Assistant began recommending nursery rhymes to her two-year-old when the child asked for her favorite song to be played. The woman said she disconnected the device immediately and now only plays music to the little girl from a computer. Given Google’s history, she worried about what third-parties had purchased the information about her daughter and the family.

California legislators also referred to the ability of malware to spread across a network of IoT devices simply because a user made dinner.

So, manufacturers of connected devices need to take into account the potential of a virus, malware or ransomware spreading across its network.

It is not difficult to do. A researcher hacked into his own smart insulin pump. This allowed him to control the amount and frequency his insulin was delivered. A lethal dose could be delivered remotely by a hacker.

A Need to be Proactive

All companies making and selling any sort of consumer-focused smart devices need to be proactive in addressing the security issues inherent in their product.

If a device is hacked and the data stolen or misused, one of the strong defenses against a complaint filed by the state after a security incident would be that the business took “reasonable steps” – the wording in the legislation – to prevent it from happening. This makes ensuring the safety of an IoT device the responsibility of the CEO and the board.

As data security and privacy attorneys, we are tracking the growing expansion of state legislation designed to protect consumers and their families. We are also following the progress of proposed federal legislation as various bills move through House subcommittees.

If you are in senior management as an executive or general counsel and have questions about what you need to do to comply with California’s IoT security law, feel free to contact us. We will be happy to share with you ideas on how to stay in compliance.

Last summer, New York Governor Andrew Cuomo signed into law the Stop Hacks and Improve Electronic Data Security (SHIELD) Act. The SHIELD Act’s data breach notification requirements are already effective and the law’s data security requirements go into effect on March 21. Any company that does business in New York or has customers in New York needs to understand what the law requires.

New York, like many other states, has a data breach notification law that requires businesses to notify consumers when a breach occurs. The SHIELD Act goes further than New York’s previous law, both in its definition of what type of information is covered and in reaching companies that may not have any connection to New York except for having information about New York residents in their database. The SHIELD Act:

  • Expanded the scope of information subject to New York’s previous data breach notification law. Previously, the law covered “personal information,” meaning information which, because of name, number, personal mark, or other identifier, can be used to identify a person. The scope of information has been expanded to include what the law now calls “private information,” which also includes biometric information, email addresses and their corresponding passwords or security questions and answers, and protected health information as defined under HIPAA.
  • Broadened the definition of a data breach to include unauthorized access to private information. Previously, information had to be “acquired” in order for a data breach to occur, now only “access” is necessary. In determining whether information has been “accessed” without valid authorization, businesses may consider, among other factors, indications that the information was viewed, communicated with, used, or altered.
  • Updated the notification procedures companies must follow when there has been a breach. Importantly, the law applies the notification requirement to any person or entity with the private information of a New York resident, not just to persons or entities that conduct business in New York. Notice is not required if the exposure of private information was an inadvertent disclosure by persons authorized to access private information, and the person or business reasonably determines such exposure will not likely result in misuse of the information. If a determination that notice is not required is made, the determination must be documented in writing and maintained for at least five years, and if the incident affects over five hundred residents of New York, the written determination must be provided to the state attorney general.
  • Requires businesses to enact “reasonable” security practices. The law creates data security requirements tailored to the size of a business. For instance, a small business (based on revenues and number of employees) will be deemed to have reasonable security practices in place if its security program “contains reasonable administrative, technical and physical safeguards that are appropriate for the size and complexity of the small business, the nature and scope of the small business’s activities, and the sensitivity of the personal information the small business collects from or about consumers.” Businesses that are not small businesses must implement a data security program that includes reasonable administrative safeguards (including risk identification and assessment, employee training, and monitoring), reasonable technical safeguards, and reasonable physical safeguards. A business that is subject to and meets the data security requirements of other federal or New York laws that include cybersecurity protections (including HIPAA-HITECH and Gramm-Leach-Bliley) is deemed to have met the data security requirements of the SHIELD Act.

Like the EU’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) and like the California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA), the SHIELD Act has extraterritorial effect—if you have private data of a New York resident, you have to comply with the law. Given the size of the state of New York, companies that do business on any but the most hyperlocal level need to evaluate whether they must comply.

On Feb. 5, 2020, the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) announced that U.S. Secretary of Commerce Wilbur Ross had appointed David Gooder as the new commissioner for trademarks. Gooder replaces Mary Boney Denison who retired from the position with the agency on Dec. 31, 2019.

To read the full law bulletin on this topic, click here.

Ever wonder how so many devices can operate together on a unified network like 4G or Wi-Fi? Ever stop to think about why you can send a selfie from your iPhone to someone else’s Galaxy halfway across the world without distorting your smile?

Smartphones can operate together with other smartphones because hundreds of the inventions powering those smartphones are covered by Standard-Essential Patents (SEPs).

And on Dec. 19, 2019, the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) joined the Department of Justice’s (DOJ) new policy permitting injunctive relief in SEP cases, giving SEP owners a lot more leverage when licensing their inventions to other companies.

To read the full law bulletin authored by Minneapolis associate Joey Balthazor, click here.

Over the years, we have written quite a bit about the many “train wrecks” that seem to plague a disturbing number of ERP software systems. We have also litigated many of these disputes on behalf of companies whose systems did not meet the promises made by software vendors or integrators during the software sales process.

But litigation is a costly, time-consuming, energy-draining and lengthy process. Receiving compensation for a failure years after it occurs does not replace anything that was lost in the meantime.

In our decades-long career of negotiating, drafting and litigating contracts for ERP software systems, we have come to understand how and why many of the train wrecks occurred. In fact, there are definite signs that an ERP software implementation or digital transformation is running into trouble. Knowing the signs and acting quickly to remedy it can keep a bad situation from spinning totally out of control.

Below are six common signs that indicate an organization’s ERP software system might be heading for trouble:

1 – Difficulty billing customers. Often, the invoicing process is the first to encounter difficulties. Either invoices can’t be generated in a timely fashion or they are inaccurate and customers start contacting suppliers because they are confused or angry.

2 – The supply chain is interrupted. An extreme example of this came when Revlon was unable to ship to retailers because it was getting late deliveries from suppliers. Shareholders filed three separate class action suits to recover the money they lost when Revlon’s stock price took a hit. If there are supply chain issues, it’s very likely rooted in an ERP problem.

3 – Inventory control is uncontrollable. When there are supply chain issues, it usually spills over into inventory control. Managing inventory is tricky at best: too much inventory and inventory is tied up; too little and production is slowed, meaning shipments are delayed. If inventory controls are not functioning properly, it is often a sign the ERP software system is not performing as needed.

4 – Problems moving data between divisions. The great strength of ERP is it assembles actionable data across many functions and facilitates management decisions. However, if silos begin to appear, or are not removed, it greatly inhibits comparing data streams. A business also loses the ability to spot correlations and patterns that can produce key insights. If this becomes a problem for the c-suite, they need to look for the root issue in their ERP.

5 – ERP isn’t integrating smoothly. For any ERP software system to generate value it must integrate seamlessly with an organization’s other systems, especially those involving payroll and finance. When this does not happen, it quickly snowballs into widespread inefficiency, to say nothing of employees’ irritation with incorrect paychecks.

6 – System agility is awkward. Because ERP technology is rapidly changing, the introduction of enhancements can happen before they are fully mature and bug-free. If an upgraded ERP software system does not integrate smoothly, it becomes more disruptive than beneficial. Difficulties loom when the system is not agile.

Benefits and Challenges

An ERP software system is a challenge to maintain due to its integrated nature. In a worst-case scenario, an undetected problem may cause it to shut down entirely, causing a massive disruption that ripples through an entire organization.

A system that does not integrate properly will create more disadvantages than advantages for an organization. Preventing a train wreck is possible, but senior people in a private or public sector business need to spot any early warning signals that trouble is brewing. Don’t rely on your vendor or integrator to do it for you.

Whether you are installing ERP for the first time, are upgrading a legacy system, or simply have concerns about what might be happening with your ERP software system, feel free to contact us. We’ve devoted our careers to working with clients on ERP-related matters and will be happy to share what we have learned.

When Elizabeth Kubler-Ross first described the five stages of grief, she was exploring how people deal with the death of a loved one. When she wrote her definitive work, ERP software systems were not even a gleam in anyone’s eye.

Yet as attorneys who have spent our careers working with ERP software systems and litigating many of the disputes that arise when the transformation goes haywire, we’ve seen clients go through many of Kubler-Ross’ stages of grief as they come to grips with their ERP loss.

Anyone who took an undergraduate sociology course at university probably remembers the stages: denial, anger, bargaining, depression and acceptance. We’ve seen many company executives go through each of these stages as a result of a digital transformation failure. But don’t despair. There is a way for the bereaved ERP user to cope with their loss and, more importantly, create a strategy that sidesteps having to deal with the five stages of grief, whether you are upgrading or just beginning the process of acquiring an ERP software system.

Denial and Anger in ERP Failures

By its very nature, every ERP transformation is a huge, complicated, time-consuming and expensive project that may involve reviewing proposals, selecting a vendor and integrator and preparing the organization for the massive changes that will be coming. Implementation can often take more than a year.

When the first hints of a problem appear, like a family member confronting the imminent death of someone close, often a company will first deny it is happening, and then believe the integrator who utters comforting words that things will get better. Yet the condition continues to deteriorate, as time, productivity and money are lost.

Disbelief turns to anger. Consultants are brought in and phone calls are made to attorneys. The user tries to bargain with their vendor and integrator. Yet the reality of the situation begins to sink in and anger turns to depression – which psychiatrists say often is the result of anger turned inward.

As we have written about frequently – most recently here and here – far too many ERP projects run into massive problems where acceptance is all that remains. Litigation is a last resort because users seldom get a second chance to get it right. The real answer is to have a strategy from the outset that will enable you to avoid coping with the five stages of grief.

A Strategy to Avoid Coping with ERP Grief

Whether you are undertaking your first ERP project or upgrading a legacy system, any public or private organization can undertake the following eight-step strategy. These are general guidelines and specific situations may require additional safeguards, but this list can help ward off Kubler-Ross’ grief and grieving stages.

1 – Senior management must own the project from the outset. An ERP software system is a management tool, not simply a tech solution. Do not sign the contract and then leave implementation to the IT department, even if you have a Chief Technology Officer. ERP is about how the business operates and runs just as your accounting system is a management tool rather than a technology matter. The likelihood of integrators telling you about an incipient problem are small so the CEO and COO need to stay on top of how the project is proceeding.

2 – Retain an independent consultant upfront. A qualified ERP consultant will help a user identify the key things the organization needs the ERP software system to do. They can also assist in writing a RFP and reviewing responses. A good consultant will also know when a vendor and integrator is being honest about his or her experience in your industry. Consultants are not inexpensive but can save millions of dollars down the road.

3 – Meet the entire team from the other side. For many large-scale ERP projects, it is entirely likely the vendor and integrator will be employing sub-contractors on different parts of the project. It is wise to interview sub-contractors to ensure what you were told they have done or can do is, in fact, within their expertise and background. If you decide they don’t fit with your needs or even your culture, ask the suppliers to find other candidates.

4 – Don’t sign the template contract. The contract given to you by the vendor and integrator you select is written entirely in their favor. Negotiate and redraft terms and conditions so the agreement works to the benefit of both parties. As lawyers who have spent several decades working on negotiating ERP contracts for clients from both the vendor and user side of the table, we know where there is flexibility on the part of the seller.

5 – Include sales material in the contract. Vendors and integrators are notorious for making assertions about their expertise and experience in a given industry because the goal of the sales team is to get the order. Along with the proposal response, the contracts need to include any written material given to a user in the course of their discussions with the vendor and integrator. In the event of an ERP train wreck, this will help document for a court what the user relied upon in making a buying decision.

6 – Specify roles and responsibilities. Template contracts are deliberately vague about what the vendor or integrator will be responsible for as the project unfolds. To protect all sides, the contract needs to be very specific about precisely what the user will be responsible for doing, as well as what your suppliers will be responsible for handling. This also helps short-circuit “scope creep” down the road because only designated individuals are authorized to modify what is detailed in the contract.

7 – Include an internal change management initiative. Adding or upgrading ERP makes a significant difference to how a company operates. It is nothing like uploading a new version of Windows to everyone’s computer. Many things inside the organization will have to be done differently for the system to add value. Jobs and roles are likely to change, or at least be different than they were prior to ERP. People need to understand what will happen and how it will affect what they do. We’ve seen transformations where the technical side went smoothly but the lack of a change management program failed the people side.

8 – Senior management must own the project. An ERP software system is a management tool, not simply a technology solution. Do not sign the contract and then leave oversight of the implementation to the vendor or integrator.

If your public or private sector organization is considering acquiring an ERP software system for the first time, or are on the threshold of upgrading a legacy system and don’t want to resort to grief counselling because of the death of the project, feel free to contact us. We’ve worked with ERP for a long time and can advise you on the contractual pitfalls to avoid. We can also refer you to independent consultants familiar with ERP who can work with you.

It seems a growing number of companies are coming to us to negotiate and draft contracts for an upgraded ERP software system. As part of understanding what we need to include in the contract, we ask the company’s CEO, COO, CTO or General Counsel why they are making the upgrade.

Frequently, the answer revolves around the following: “our vendor told us we are falling behind in technology and need to upgrade to stay current.”

While we appreciate companies’ confidence in asking us to handle the legal components of upgrades, a pattern seems to be emerging among ERP vendors and integrators: convince users to spend millions on an upgrade that may not be necessary. When this happens, it is being done not because the upgrade is in the best interests of the user but of the vendor and the integrator.

Yet many of the newer ERP software systems are not yet mature enough to work as well as a lot of legacy installations. Before succumbing to the siren call of the vendor, users in companies of every size need to conduct a thorough due diligence inside their organization to determine whether the enhanced system will actually benefit their organization.

ERP Upgrade Precautions

For companies opting to upgrade their ERP software system, there are some things the contract needs to include. Prime among these is a specific detailing of the stated or implied promises being made by the vendor and integrator as to the functionality and performance of the newer model.

If either the vendor or the integrator are reluctant or unwilling to include these warranties in the contract, it’s best to walk away from the deal. They’re signalling they know something you don’t. Yet if there is a problem down the line, these written assertions will become your best argument should the dispute end up in litigation.

Here is the crux of the issue.

Despite their largely successful track records with more mature systems, there is a legitimate question whether the newest generation of ERP software systems are up to the task. SAP’s S4/HANA, Oracle’s ERP cloud and Microsoft’s D365 lack the track record of their predecessor systems of supporting the complex needs of many businesses and other organizations in the private and public sectors.

Until they have demonstrated their ability to seamlessly take over from a more mature ERP software system, a user being urged to upgrade needs to proceed cautiously. If a careful, internal analysis makes a business case for upgrading, then do so. Just remember to include in the contract all of the specificity in the agreement for your legacy system.

Along with language that spells out the improvements an upgraded system will bring, some other points to cover include:

1 – Outlining all sales material as an appendix to the new contract.

2 – Detailing the specific responsibilities of the vendor, integrator and the user

3 – Drafting provisions that prevent “scope creep” without a senior person’s authorization.

4 – Removing or limiting binding arbitration clauses that may reduce your ability to recover damages from the vendor or the integrator if there is a problem.

There is an unfortunate history of ERP “train wrecks.” Take steps upfront to reduce the likelihood of your organization being involved in another one.

Buy the Steak, Not the Sizzle

In nearly every aspect of running their organization, executives and senior managers are incredibly disciplined. Yet when it comes to their ERP software system – often, the engine that is driving the entire business – we’ve seen too many decisions made for the wrong reason. Most common seems to be viewing ERP software systems as a technology tool, not a management solution.

This is likely to result in the transformation heading straight for the rocks, similar to where the Sirens lured Circes and his entire crew to their demise.

If you are looking at upgrading your ERP software system and want to discuss the pros and cons of the legal aspects, feel free to contact us. We’re happy to share our experience and knowledge, as well as refer you to highly respected independent ERP consultants who can help senior management navigate what can often be treacherous waters.

While the spread of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in the construction sector is expected to be modest in the immediate future, a shift is coming. Stakeholders can no longer afford to see AI as pertinent only to other industries – engineering and construction will need to catch up with AI applications. This is the only way to contend with incoming market competitors and remain relevant.

To read the full law bulletin authored by Cincinnati partner Joseph Cleves, Jr., click here.

Technology companies are notorious for believing the solutions they propose to a potential user’s pain points are the best possible answer. When it comes to ERP software systems, however, too often many developers, vendors and integrators ignore or overlook the reality that the technology they sell is actually a business solution, not simply a technology tool.

In the process of reviewing pitches and proposals from sellers, C-suite executives – including chief technology officers – need to remember that SAP, Oracle, Microsoft and all the rest are in the technology business – this is what they focus on selling. For an ERP software system to have a measurable, positive impact on an organization, whether it is installed in the private or public sector, it is important to remember that no matter how the sophisticated the software, it will still be used by people.

It is a company’s responsibility to ensure it has a plan to accommodate all of the change management aspects of an ERP software project so people are not only trained in how to use the new system, but also to understand how this system will change their jobs. This is important so that both the system and your people succeed.

However, this does not absolve the vendor and integrator from helping with the human aspect of their product.

ERP Means Change Management

As complex as an ERP software system may be, if the vendor and integrator understand the user’s business it is possible for everything to go smoothly (from a technical point of view) on the day the system goes live.

However, this is only half of the problem. The other half is understanding that the data being collected and distributed will be going to people. Since ERP means a major shift in an organization’s management, it also means a major shift in how employees work.

In many respects, the user experience with ERP is at least as important or perhaps more so than all of the coding that sits behind a terminal in someone’s office. This does not just mean easy-to-understand screens; it also means easy-to-understand work processes.

ERP change management can’t simply be handed off to Human Resources. It requires an effort that involves the vendor and integrator, as much as it does HR.

As a result, it is necessary for the contract with both the vendor and integrator of the ERP software system to specify what each entity’s role in the change management process will be. The contract provisions need to be specific, including detailing the seller’s experience in handling change management in similar organizations and sectors. If direct experience is weak in this area, it may signal a warning of other problems with the solution they are proposing you buy.

Serious Implications

Regardless of whether an organization is updating a legacy system or implementing an ERP software system for the first time, it needs to recognize it is acquiring a management solution that happens to use technology.

User experience and understanding of the human factors associated with digital transformation are as important to achieving success as is integrating the system with the organization’s existing processes and infrastructure.

As attorneys whose legal careers have focused on negotiating and drafting contracts for ERP software systems, we have advised clients on ensuring that change management is part of the process and should be incorporated into the agreement with a vendor and integrator. Executives and senior managers cannot lull themselves into thinking that the purchase decision is the end-goal of the process. Nor can they allow employees to undermine the use and effectiveness of the ERP software system because they do not grasp the changes it brings to their job or the organization.

If you have questions about the role of change management in a successful ERP software integration, feel free to call us. We would be happy to share our experience and offer suggestions.